Learning to Play Guess Who? and Inventing a Grounded Language as a Consequence

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Learning your first language is an incredible feat and not easily duplicated. Doing this using nothing but a few pictureless books, a corpus, would likely be impossible even for humans. As an alternative we propose to use situated interactions between agents as a driving force for communication, and the framework of Deep Recurrent Q-Networks (DRQN) for learning a common language grounded in the provided environment. We task the agents with interactive image search in the form of the game Guess Who?. The images from the game provide a non trivial environment for the agents to discuss and a natural grounding for the concepts they decide to encode in their communication. Our experiments show that it is possible to learn this task using DRQN and even more importantly that the words the agents use correspond to physical attributes present in the images that make up the agents environment.

Word Sense Disambiguation using a Bidirectional LSTM

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In this paper we present a clean, yet effective, model for word sense disambiguation. Our approach leverage a bidirectional long short-term memory network which is shared between all words. This enables the model to share statistical strength and to scale well with vocabulary size. The model is trained end-to-end, directly from the raw text to sense labels, and makes effective use of word order. We evaluate our approach on two standard datasets, using identical hyperparameter settings, which are in turn tuned on a third set of held out data. We employ no external resources (e.g. knowledge graphs, part-of-speech tagging, etc), language specific features, or hand crafted rules, but still achieve statistically equivalent results to the best state-of-the-art systems, that employ no such limitations.

Extractive Summarization by Aggregating Multiple Similarities

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News reports, social media streams, blogs, digitized archives and books are part of a plethora of reading sources that people face every day. This raises the question of how to best generate automatic summaries. Many existing methods for extracting summaries rely on comparing the similarity of two sentences in some way. We present new ways of measuring this similarity, based on sentiment analysis and continuous vector space representations, and show that combining these together with similarity measures from existing methods, helps to create better summaries. The finding is demonstrated with MULTSUM, a novel summarization method that uses ideas from kernel methods to combine sentence similarity measures. Submodular optimization is then used to produce summaries that take several different similarity measures into account. Our method improves over the state-of-the-art on standard benchmark datasets; it is also fast and scale to large document collections, and the results are statistically significant.

Visions and open challenges for a knowledge-based culturomics

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The concept of culturomics was born out of the availability of massive amounts of textual data and the interest to make sense of cultural and language phenomena over time. Thus far however, culturomics has only made use of, and shown the great potential of, statistical methods. In this paper, we present a vision for a knowledge-based culturomics that complements traditional culturomics. We discuss the possibilities and challenges of combining knowledge-based methods with statistical methods and address major challenges that arise due to the nature of the data; diversity of sources, changes in language over time as well as temporal dynamics of information in general. We address all layers needed for knowledge-based culturomics, from natural language processing and relations to summaries and opinions.

Extractive summarization using continuous vector space models

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Automatic summarization can help users extract the most important pieces of information from the vast amount of text digitized into electronic form everyday. Central to automatic summarization is the notion of similarity between sentences in text. In this paper we propose the use of continuous vector representations for semantically aware representations of sentences as a basis for measuring similarity. We evaluate different compositions for sentence representation on a standard dataset using the ROUGE evaluation measures. Our experiments show that the evaluated methods improve the performance of a state-of-the-art summarization framework and strongly indicate the benefits of continuous word vector representations for automatic summarization.

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Code

Our implementation of submodular optimization is available here and the recursive neural network used in the paper is based on the code made available by Richard Socher on his webpage.