EXAM
Introduction to Functional Programming
TDA555/DIT440

 DAY: October 22, 2013 TIME: 14:00–18:00 PLACE: V-salar

 Responsible: Aids: Grade: Emil Axelsson, D&IT, Tel: 0733-701736 An English (or English-Swedish, or English-X) dictionary Completing Part I gives a 3 or a G;Part I and Part II are both needed for a 4, 5, or VG

This exam consists of two parts:
 Part I   (5 small assignments) Give good enough answers for 4 assignments here and you will get a 3 or a G Part II   (2 larger assignments) Ignore this part if you are happy with a 3 or a G! Do Part I and one assignment of your choice here and you will get a 4 Do Part I and both assignments here and you will get a 5 or a VG

 Please read the following guidelines carefully: Answers can be given in Swedish or English Begin each assignment on a new sheet Write your number on each sheet Write clearly; unreadable = wrong! You can make use of the standard Haskell functions and types given in the attached list (you have to implement other functions yourself if you want to use them) You do not have to import standard modules in your solutions

Good Luck!

Part I

You have to complete 4 out of the following 5 assignments to get a pass on the exam.

1. Implement a function

``totalPrice :: (Item -> Int) -> [Item] -> Int``

that given a price function and an item list calculates the total price of the items in the list. The price function `Item -> Int` gives the price of a single item. Items are represented as strings:

``type Item = String``

For the examples, we will use the following price function:

``````priceOf :: String -> Int
priceOf "milk"      = 10
priceOf "butter"    = 18
priceOf "potatoes"  = 22
priceOf "chocolate" = 16``````

Examples:

``````*Main> totalPrice priceOf ["milk", "milk", "butter"]
38

*Main> totalPrice priceOf ["chocolate", "butter"]
34``````

2. When paying invoices using online banking, there is always a risk that one mistypes the OCR number. For this reason, OCR numbers typically include a check sum which makes it easy to discover most incorrectly typed numbers. A simple method to discover incorrect numbers is to look at the sum of the digits. In this assignment, we will say that a correct OCR number has a digit sum that ends with 7.

For example, the number 123452 is correct because 1+2+3+4+5+2 = 17, and the last digit of 17 is 7.

Implement a function

``correctOCR :: [Integer] -> Bool``

that, given an OCR number (represented as a list of digits), checks whether or not it is correct.

Examples:

``````*Main> correctOCR [1,2,3,4,5,2]
True

*Main> correctOCR [1,2,3,4,5,6]
False``````

Hint:

• You may use the standard functions `show`, `sum` and `last`.
• An alternative solution may use `mod`.

3. Consider the following recursive data type, used to store integers in a tree shape.

``````data Store
= Empty
| Join Int Store Store``````

Implement a function

``maxStore :: Store -> Int``

that finds the largest integer element in the tree.

Examples:

``````*Main> maxStore Empty
0

*Main> maxStore (Join 3 Empty (Join 7 Empty Empty))
7``````

4. Write a QuickCheck property that expresses that the result of sorting a list is the same if the list is first reversed, and then sorted.

``````prop_reverse_sort :: [Int] -> Bool
...``````

Use the standard function `sort`.

5. The well-known UNIX command `head` prints out the first 10 lines in a file. Implement a Haskell function:

``unixHead :: FilePath -> IO ()``

that given a file name, prints out the first 10 lines in that file.

Example:

``````*Main> unixHead "Functions.hs"
{-
This is a list of selected functions from the standard Haskell modules:

Prelude
Data.List
Data.Maybe
Data.Char
-}

--------------------------------------------------------------------------``````

(Functions.hs is the file containing the appendix of this exam.)

Hint:

• Use `readFile`, `unlines`, and `lines`.

Part II

Do not work on this part if you only want to get a 3 or a G!

If you want to get a 4, you have to do Part I, plus one of the following assignments.

If you want to get a 5 or a VG, you have to do Part I, plus both of the following assignments.

6. Arne has a radio-controlled car that accepts four different commands: forward, backward, turn left and turn right. When the car turns left or right, it always turns exactly 90 degrees. In order to improve his driving skills, Arne wants to write a computer simulator for the car’s movement.

He starts by modeling the four commands as a data type:

``````data Command
= FORW Int
| BACKW Int
| LEFT
| RIGHT``````

The integer argument to `FORW` and `BACKW` denotes the distance the car should drive in that direction.

But after this, Arne gets stuck. He needs your help to implement a function

``destination :: [Command] -> (Int,Int)``

that, given a list of commands computes the position of the car after following these commands. The original position of the car is (x, y) = (0, 0), and it is facing “upwards” in the sense that going forwards will increase its y position.

Example:

``````*Main> destination [FORW 20, BACKW 10, RIGHT, FORW 100]
(100,10)

*Main> destination [FORW 20, BACKW 5, LEFT, FORW 100]
(-100,15)``````

Can you help him by implementing the function `destination`?

7. Imagine that you have been given 100 kr and want to spend as much of it as possible. You go into a store where they sell the following:

``````Magazine:  44 kr
Ice cream: 33 kr
Umbrella:  59 kr
Candy:     15 kr
Soda:      19 kr``````

You are allowed to buy at most one of each item. What’s the maximum amount you can spend in this store?

(Answer: 96 kr (magazine, ice cream and soda).)

Write a function

``maxSpend :: Int -> [Int] -> Int``

that, given a maximal amount, and a list of item prices, computes the maximal spendable amount. Remember that you are allowed to buy each item at most once.

Examples:

``````*Main> maxSpend 100 [44,33,59,15,19]
96

*Main> maxSpend 100 [44,33]
77

*Main> maxSpend 10 [44,33]
0``````

Appendix

``````
{-
This is a list of selected functions from the standard Haskell modules:

Prelude
Data.List
Data.Maybe
Data.Char
-}

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- standard type classes

class Show a where
show :: a -> String

class Eq a where
(==), (/=) :: a -> a -> Bool

class (Eq a) => Ord a where
(<), (<=), (>=), (>) :: a -> a -> Bool
max, min             :: a -> a -> a

class (Eq a, Show a) => Num a where
(+), (-), (*)    :: a -> a -> a
negate           :: a -> a
abs, signum      :: a -> a
fromInteger      :: Integer -> a

class (Num a, Ord a) => Real a where
toRational       ::  a -> Rational

class (Real a, Enum a) => Integral a where
quot, rem        :: a -> a -> a
div, mod         :: a -> a -> a
toInteger        :: a -> Integer

class (Num a) => Fractional a where
(/)              :: a -> a -> a
fromRational     :: Rational -> a

class (Fractional a) => Floating a where
exp, log, sqrt      :: a -> a
sin, cos, tan       :: a -> a

class (Real a, Fractional a) => RealFrac a where
truncate, round  :: (Integral b) => a -> b
ceiling, floor   :: (Integral b) => a -> b

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- numerical functions

even, odd        :: (Integral a) => a -> Bool
even n           = n `rem` 2 == 0
odd              = not . even

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

sequence     :: Monad m => [m a] -> m [a]
sequence     = foldr mcons (return [])
where mcons p q = do x <- p; xs <- q; return (x:xs)

sequence_    :: Monad m => [m a] -> m ()
sequence_ xs = do sequence xs; return ()

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- functions on functions

id               :: a -> a
id x             = x

const            :: a -> b -> a
const x _        = x

(.)              :: (b -> c) -> (a -> b) -> a -> c
f . g            = \ x -> f (g x)

flip             :: (a -> b -> c) -> b -> a -> c
flip f x y       = f y x

(\$) :: (a -> b) -> a -> b
f \$  x           = f x

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- functions on Bools

data Bool = False | True

(&&), (||)       :: Bool -> Bool -> Bool
True  && x       = x
False && _       = False
True  || _       = True
False || x       = x

not              :: Bool -> Bool
not True         = False
not False        = True

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- functions on Maybe

data Maybe a = Nothing | Just a

isJust                 :: Maybe a -> Bool
isJust (Just a)        =  True
isJust Nothing         =  False

isNothing              :: Maybe a -> Bool
isNothing              =  not . isJust

fromJust               :: Maybe a -> a
fromJust (Just a)      =  a

maybeToList            :: Maybe a -> [a]
maybeToList Nothing    =  []
maybeToList (Just a)   =  [a]

listToMaybe            :: [a] -> Maybe a
listToMaybe []         =  Nothing
listToMaybe (a:_)      =  Just a

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- functions on pairs

fst              :: (a,b) -> a
fst (x,y)        =  x

snd              :: (a,b) -> b
snd (x,y)        =  y

curry            :: ((a, b) -> c) -> a -> b -> c
curry f x y      =  f (x, y)

uncurry          :: (a -> b -> c) -> ((a, b) -> c)
uncurry f p      =  f (fst p) (snd p)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- functions on lists

map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]
map f xs = [ f x | x <- xs ]

(++) :: [a] -> [a] -> [a]
xs ++ ys = foldr (:) ys xs

filter :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
filter p xs = [ x | x <- xs, p x ]

concat :: [[a]] -> [a]
concat xss = foldr (++) [] xss

concatMap :: (a -> [b]) -> [a] -> [b]
concatMap f = concat . map f

head, last       :: [a] -> a

last [x]         = x
last (_:xs)      = last xs

tail, init       :: [a] -> [a]
tail (_:xs)      = xs

init [x]         = []
init (x:xs)      = x : init xs

null             :: [a] -> Bool
null []          = True
null (_:_)       = False

length           :: [a] -> Int
length []        = 0
length (_:l)     = 1 + length l

(!!)             :: [a] -> Int -> a
(x:_)  !! 0      = x
(_:xs) !! n      = xs !! (n-1)

foldr            :: (a -> b -> b) -> b -> [a] -> b
foldr f z []     =  z
foldr f z (x:xs) =  f x (foldr f z xs)

foldl            :: (a -> b -> a) -> a -> [b] -> a
foldl f z []     =  z
foldl f z (x:xs) =  foldl f (f z x) xs

iterate          :: (a -> a) -> a -> [a]
iterate f x      =  x : iterate f (f x)

repeat           :: a -> [a]
repeat x         =  xs where xs = x:xs

replicate        :: Int -> a -> [a]
replicate n x    =  take n (repeat x)

cycle            :: [a] -> [a]
cycle []         =  error "Prelude.cycle: empty list"
cycle xs         =  xs' where xs' = xs ++ xs'

take, drop             :: Int -> [a] -> [a]
take n _      | n <= 0 =  []
take _ []              =  []
take n (x:xs)          =  x : take (n-1) xs

drop n xs     | n <= 0 =  xs
drop _ []              =  []
drop n (_:xs)          =  drop (n-1) xs

splitAt                :: Int -> [a] -> ([a],[a])
splitAt n xs           =  (take n xs, drop n xs)

takeWhile, dropWhile    :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> [a]
takeWhile p []          =  []
takeWhile p (x:xs)
| p x       =  x : takeWhile p xs
| otherwise =  []

dropWhile p []          =  []
dropWhile p xs@(x:xs')
| p x       =  dropWhile p xs'
| otherwise =  xs

lines, words     :: String -> [String]
-- lines "apa\nbepa\ncepa\n" == ["apa","bepa","cepa"]
-- words "apa  bepa\n cepa"  == ["apa","bepa","cepa"]

unlines, unwords :: [String] -> String
-- unlines ["apa","bepa","cepa"] == "apa\nbepa\ncepa"
-- unwords ["apa","bepa","cepa"] == "apa bepa cepa"

reverse          :: [a] -> [a]
reverse          =  foldl (flip (:)) []

and, or          :: [Bool] -> Bool
and              =  foldr (&&) True
or               =  foldr (||) False

any, all         :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> Bool
any p            =  or . map p
all p            =  and . map p

elem, notElem    :: (Eq a) => a -> [a] -> Bool
elem x           =  any (== x)
notElem x        =  all (/= x)

lookup           :: (Eq a) => a -> [(a,b)] -> Maybe b
lookup key []    =  Nothing
lookup key ((x,y):xys)
| key == x   =  Just y
| otherwise  =  lookup key xys

sum, product     :: (Num a) => [a] -> a
sum              =  foldl (+) 0
product          =  foldl (*) 1

maximum, minimum :: (Ord a) => [a] -> a
maximum []       =  error "Prelude.maximum: empty list"
maximum xs       =  foldl1 max xs

minimum []       =  error "Prelude.minimum: empty list"
minimum xs       =  foldl1 min xs

zip              :: [a] -> [b] -> [(a,b)]
zip              =  zipWith (,)

zipWith          :: (a->b->c) -> [a]->[b]->[c]
zipWith z (a:as) (b:bs)
=  z a b : zipWith z as bs
zipWith _ _ _    =  []

unzip            :: [(a,b)] -> ([a],[b])
unzip            =  foldr (\(a,b) ~(as,bs) -> (a:as,b:bs)) ([],[])

nub              :: Eq a => [a] -> [a]
nub []           = []
nub (x:xs)       = x : nub [ y | y <- xs, x /= y ]

delete           :: Eq a => a -> [a] -> [a]
delete y []      = []
delete y (x:xs)  = if x == y then xs else x : delete y xs

(\\)             :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a]
(\\)             = foldl (flip delete)

union            :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a]
union xs ys      = xs ++ (ys \\ xs)

intersect        :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> [a]
intersect xs ys  = [ x | x <- xs, x `elem` ys ]

intersperse      :: a -> [a] -> [a]
-- intersperse 0 [1,2,3,4] == [1,0,2,0,3,0,4]

transpose        :: [[a]] -> [[a]]
-- transpose [[1,2,3],[4,5,6]] == [[1,4],[2,5],[3,6]]

partition        :: (a -> Bool) -> [a] -> ([a],[a])
partition p xs   = (filter p xs, filter (not . p) xs)

group            :: Eq a => [a] -> [[a]]
-- group "aapaabbbeee" == ["aa","p","aa","bbb","eee"]

isPrefixOf, isSuffixOf   :: Eq a => [a] -> [a] -> Bool
isPrefixOf []     _      =  True
isPrefixOf _      []     =  False
isPrefixOf (x:xs) (y:ys) =  x == y && isPrefixOf xs ys

isSuffixOf x y           =  reverse x `isPrefixOf` reverse y

sort              :: (Ord a) => [a] -> [a]
sort              = foldr insert []

insert            :: (Ord a) => a -> [a] -> [a]
insert x []       = [x]
insert x (y:xs)   = if x <= y then x:y:xs else y:insert x xs

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- functions on Char

type String = [Char]

toUpper, toLower :: Char -> Char
-- toUpper 'a' == 'A'
-- toLower 'Z' == 'z'

digitToInt :: Char -> Int
-- digitToInt '8' == 8

intToDigit :: Int -> Char
-- intToDigit 3 == '3'

ord :: Char -> Int
chr :: Int  -> Char

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- input/output

putStr  :: String -> IO ()
getLine :: IO String

readFile  :: FilePath -> IO String
writeFile :: FilePath -> String -> IO ()

--------------------------------------------------------------------------``````